Tuesday, June 23, 2020

Could Stem Cell Injections Heal Muscles - Free Essay Example

In this paper I will mainly focus on the effects of stem cell injections on skeletal muscle injures in mice, this is because those types of muscle injuries are extremely common. Skeletal muscle is a highly specialized tissue made up of non-dividing, multi-nucleated muscle fibers, which contract to generate force in a controlled and controlled manner,which account for up to half the mass of the human body. However, effective muscle function is both mechanically and energetically demanding, making this tissue particularly susceptible to damage. Such muscle damage may reduce mobility and contribute to metabolic. Skeletal muscle has a strong innate tissue damage repair capability. Despite the proficiency of this intrinsic repair capability, severe injuries resulting in a significant loss of muscle tissue overwhelm the innate repair process and require intervention in order to restore muscle function. Natural muscle damage repair is a step wise process requiring the coordinated activity of a number of cell types involving three healing steps: degeneration and inflammation, regeneration and fibrosis. There is a phase of myofiber degeneration immediately after injury that is initiated by the release of proteases into the tissue stroma; these proteases automatically digest myofibers and thereby release tissue debris along the injury zone. In addition, macrophages stimulate the paracrine release by T cells of cytokines and other chemotactic factors that can recruit progenitor and satellite cells with muscle regeneration capacity locally. While the degeneration phase is transient, the subsequent regeneration phase of myofibers is the first step in the long-term pattern of skeletal muscle injury. This phase may begin as early as 24 hours after injury, as evidenced by the cytokine-mediated induction of local satellite cells that previously lie dormant between the basal lamina and sarcolemma; however, the complete formation of new, centronucleated myofibers cannot be detected histologically until at least 3 5 days after injury. It is likely that the differentiation of satellite cells into myotubules and myofibers is a crucial event in the regeneration phase. To date, these progenitor cells are perhaps the best characterized and are often referred to as muscle stem cells because they favor myogenic lines. Fibrous tissue prevents the full recovery of the muscle and current therapies fail to achieve total recovery of the muscle. Gene and (or both) cell therapy are potential future treatments for serious muscle injuries. The properties of stem cells related to growth factors and /or cytokines can improve muscle healing and allow for long term recovery. Perhaps the biggest limitation for patients resulting from skeletal muscle injury pathophysiology is the formation of a dense fibrotic scar tissue. Clearly, fibrosis is caused by a deleterious increase in the cytokine growth factor (TGF)-B1 following injury. MDSCs and other myogenic cells differentiate into myofibroblasts, which produce collagen type I, the main component of fibrotic tissue, in the presence of this cytokine. Fibrosis can ultimately prevent patients from returning to their basic function, partly by preventing the formation of new axons towards myofibers, and contributes to a decrease in muscle contractility and range of movement. It is a known fact that as we get older, our cells gradually lose the ability to heal themselves and injury can cause muscle loss due to a process called muscular atrophy, which is where regenerative medicine takes place. Like stem cell injections, which fall under the category of stem cell therapy to treat or prevent a disease or condition by using stem cells. Stem cells are capable of differentiating into specific types of cells. The two defining features of a stem cell are perpetual s elf-regeneration and the ability to differentiate into a specialized type of adult cell. There are two main classes of stem cells: pluripotent cells that can become any cell in the adult body and multipotent cells that are limited to a smaller cell population. In the case of muscle damage, the cells that have been used most frequently in pre-clinical trials are muscle satellite cells (MSCs). MSCs have the ability to renew and differentiate into multiple lineages of connective tissue, including bone, fat, cartilage, tendon, muscle, and bone marrow stromal cells. Stem cell injections has proven to be successful in injured/aging mice but do to some challenges this form of therapy has not move forward to clinical trials, but results may forecast a promising future for regenerative medicine Research The research I found was limited to animal models and majority of the studies were performed in laboratory experiments on mice. For example, researchers at the Georgia Institute of Technology have developed a molecular matrix, a hydrogel, to deliver muscle satellite cells (MSCs) directly to damage muscle tissue in patients whose muscles do not regenerate well. The hydrogel was successfully in delivering MuSCs to injured, aged muscle tissue in mice and boosted the healing process while protecting the stem cells from harsh immune reactions. CS In Addition, the same method was also s uccessful in mice with a muscle tissue deficiency that matched Duchene muscular dystrophy, and if research progresses, the new hydrogel therapy could one day save the lives of people suffering from the disease. Researchers at the University of Colorado in Boulder and the University of Washington also discovered that stem cells injected into the muscles of the mouse led to an increase for the rest of the mouses life. The injuries not only healed, but muscle mass increased by 50 percent and muscle volume increased by 170 percent. For some reason, the stem cells did not simply multiply and replace old damaged cells. They formed new connections to myofibers and increased significantly in numbers within the muscle. In other words, whatever the transplanted stem cells did, it was much more than just repairing damage and normalizing things. Issues with Research When it comes to stem cell injections moving into clinical trials there are a few challenges that need to be faced for that to happen. For example our immune system, researchers at the Georgia institute for technology found that simply injecting additional muscle satellite cells into damaged, inflamed tissue was inefficient because the new cells enter the body when the immune system on the warpath. And like any muscle injury or disease its going to attract the immune system and where as in any other case this would be a good thing, in the case o f aged or dystrophic muscles it is not. This is because in this case the immune system release toxins that kill the stem cells off, in fact when tested the found that between and 1 and 20 percent of the injected MSCs actually made it to the targeted site and those that did were weakened. Which is why they developed a solution to coat the cells in , a hydrogel often start out as water-based solutions of molecular components that resemble crosses, and other components that make the ends of the crosses attach to each other. When the components come together, they fuse into molecular nets suspended in water, resulting in a material with the consistency of a gel. If stem cells or a drug are mixed into the solution, when the net, or matrix, forms, it ensnares the treatment for delivery and protects the payload from death or dissipation in the body. Whereas researchers at the University of Colorado at Boulder and the University of Washington ran into a different issue/ concern. The mice used in this experiment injuries were inflicted directly using barium chloride injections and its made the question if that was a natural injury or muscle loss due to a disease would the stem cell reaction be similar. And they also questioned if age at the time of injury/ treatment played a major role in the effects since they used mice that were about 3 months in age for the treatment and as donors. Sine the muscles in mice are very small so its unclear on how well the cells would migrate in the larger muscles of humans. Si milarities Mouse models are regarded as the most advanced and practical models used as an alternative to genetic research in humans. Ethical concerns in many cases prevent scientists from using human subjects and embryos to test stem cell therapies that could be used for future use. In such cases, it can be extremely useful that an impressive 99 percent of the genes belonging to mouse DNA match the corresponding human counterpart gene sequences. In this way, scientists can use embryonic and adult stem cells from mice and conduct their research unhindered while also gaining important insights into the potentially practical adaptation of research to clinical trials in humans. Mouse studies make stem cell research more bright than ever before. Many of the past few achievements and advances in embryonic stem cell research have been achieved using ES cells grown from different mouse models. Since embryonic cells can play a role in virtually any other cell type, mouse ES cells have already been used to develop and study different mouse tissue samples closely resembling human tissue and to evaluate their reaction to certain treatments and stimuli. The genetic manipulation of ES cells in the mouse and the addition of human genetic material are also at the forefront of e mbryonic stem cell research.

Wednesday, May 20, 2020

Decision-Making Model Paper - Free Essay Example

Sample details Pages: 10 Words: 3037 Downloads: 3 Date added: 2017/06/26 Category Psychology Essay Type Argumentative essay Did you like this example? Decision-Making Model Paper Life is full of decisions. Some of them are trivial, like for example: should I choose this newspaper or another? Which kind of dish should I choose from the menu? Other decisions are hard to evaluate and vital, like for example: should I put my private life first or I should privilege professional aspects, should I take this new job opportunity to relocate somewhere else? Some decisions can affect many people, others only yourself. An appropriate decision making plays a major role in the success of any business management. Don’t waste time! Our writers will create an original "Decision-Making Model Paper" essay for you Create order The success of the business and projects depends on the decision making quality of the management and leadership. Making good decisions is fundamental to obtain a good performance in organization. There are some decisions that can have huge consequences, which can change the organizational roles and the company operation processes. The daily choices that organizations have to take are always subject to variations, this is a continuous process of making reactions and consequences; a circle in which each person has a role. Without an appropriate and good decision making, leaders and managers are not able to achieve projects and business objectives. Good decision making is not an easy task for a manager, because there are many potential factors that can influence the decision making process, such as environmental, cultural, economic and physiological factors. One of the main impediments and barriers related to good decision making is the lack of information, because in decision makin g if a manager takes a decision based on an improper or insufficient data this can have an impact on the success of the decision. In addition, without having a proper information, managers are not able to take correct decisions. Moreover, due to lack of time and resources, managers are usually unable to collect appropriate and sufficient elements and this obviously contributes to make bad decisions. Lacking of availability of sufficient, reliable and proper information also implies an impact on managerà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s decision making. Another factor that may affect decision making is when managers have poor ideas. This is an impediment in a decision making situation because on the basis of poor arguments, managers will not take good decisions. Ideas play a major role in decision making, as on the basis of different ideas of a given problem managers take decisions related to the situation. In addition, if the idea is wrong the probability of succeeding is very low. For example, if a manager is looking for improving the profit, but is only focusing on cost reduction and cut expenses, this wonà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢t work as he would expect in optimizing resources utilization and improving production in order to achieve higher profit. So, without good ideas and better solutions, managersà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢ decision making is not effective for the business. The five steps of the decision making process that should be identified when facing a problem are: define the problem, generate and evaluate alternatives, decide course of action, implement the decision and evaluate the results. In this essay Ià ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢m going to present two different decision-making approaches. Ià ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢m also going to describe a decision that I made while working for a previous company using the five steps of the decision making process and Ià ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢ m going to highlight how critical thinking had an impact on that decision. The following model is a decision-making sc hema that I applied to reach a decision. FRAMING Clarify purpose and boundaries of the decision Gather information Identify who is affected by the decision Identify who is in charge to make the decision (an individual or a group) Identify what experience or knowledge is needed to make the decision Determine what information or resources are available on decision making process topic Define by when the decision needs to be made Communicate to affected parties who is in charge for decision making and the reasons for it DECIDING Define how the decision will be approved (consensus, voting, etc.) Use appropriate tools that support data gathering (affinity diagram, how-how, interrelationship digraph, fishbone, flowcharts) Make the decision through ideas and data integration, negotiation and ideas prioritization Identify who (individual or group) will implement the decision COMMUNICATING Summarize the rationale for the decision Communicate the decision, why it was done and the reasons for it IMPLEMENTING Define the steps in implementing the decision including completion timeframes Define the method to report when something is done and who will get the report EVALUATING Identify the process for assessing impact of decision We can define critical thinking as, The general term given to a wide range of cognitive skills and intellectual dispositions needed to effectively identify, analyze, and evaluate arguments and truth claims, to discover and overcome personal prejudices and biases, to formulate and present convincing reasons in support of conclusions, and to make reasonable, intelligent decisions about what to believe and what to do. In other words, critical thinking consists in being able to look at information critically. It implies asking questions about the information presented and then analyzing the answers. It means using the answers to create new ideas, solve problems, and make decisions. Critical thinking is imperative to making sound decisions using a decision-making modelà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ . This was an example of a quite simple decision that I had to take in occasion of company department restructuration, while working for the previous company. Top management decided to swap and merge a few d epartments that were reporting to several managers, this was done mainly to reduce staff costs and optimize project organization flows, as few roles and departments were overlapping. I was chosen as manager for supporting and à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã…“redesigningà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚  the new staff reorganization. I decided then to proceed step by step: The first one was to get acquainted with my team, the second was to involve managers of the other departments to understand if the teams were optimally organized, team activities, head counts, ongoing projects, internal problems, workflows etc. At the end of my analysis I had to revert top management with my findings on team organization, about what could be done in order to increase team efficiency and productivity, and I had to provide my hints on how to rearrange them. I decided then to use decision-making model to determine and evaluate what needed to be done, and if any organizational changes should to be done, if opt to merge departments with o thers, if hire or fire people. As part of the model framing process, I knew that I had to take the decisions alone and that this would potentially impact the company structure and business. However, I wanted to get the input also from the other managers, since they were more knowledgeable regarding the strengths of each team member and they were familiar with the dynamics, which tend to arise when working in groups. I did not want to inform, or announce, any implementation or changes too quickly to avoid any kind of shock, like having to report to a new boss or being relocated somewhere else or fired. In the deciding phase I met each individual manager for a face-to-face coffee break. I had previously prepared a list of questions that I was going to ask them, which I would cover during our conversation. I shared that my goal was to get to know each of them deeply and find out something more about their team, their feelings and thoughts about company businesses and activities. I also encouraged them to ask questions, in their turn. I questioned them about their perception concerning their position in the group, their development plans, and I requested them what they would have changed about the group if they were top managers. I spent about a week in order to be able to gather all the information through this process. I found out that the staff was organized fairly well, with a few exceptions, and the teams were working on almost the same topics (different resources from different teams were working on same topics waste of time/resources à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â‚¬Å" and this was happening mainly because teams were not communicating to each other, so people were not informed that they were working on the same projects). The overall outcome was anyway really good and I decided to make only two minor changes and a major one: I decided to move two teammates to different teams within the same group and to merge two teams in order to increase overall productivity and efficien cy and to establish weekly meetings among team managers to avoid any double activities and to let all of them share weekly updates and results. As part of the communication phase I referred my proposed changes to top management, that validated my decision and I shared rationale behind my organization changes with them. Changes were implemented while talking on a new project for the teams. I spoke with the impacted colleagues, communicating that I needed their specialized skill sets in their new groups. They showed to acknowledge the news well and they continued to be satisfied on their new teams. I went on keeping periodic one-to-one meetings with my staff and the other managers. During those meetings I had to assess the impact of my decisions. Another kind of decision that I had I had to take was about my career plan. I spent the last 2 years working within finance field and this has had a great impact in a lot of ways, both in my professional and private life. I have been able to create a pleasant environment with my colleagues and have appreciated my collaboration with the company. They used to say and believe that the fundamental aspect in your job activity to perceive a great passion on what you do and enjoy while doing it. I have been able to follow the advice and in fact I continue to improve myself in order to effectively perform my work. It isnà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢t easy to cope with the responsibility linked to making decisions within a company. Moreover making the right decision becomes even more painful when your own feelings are involved. Being in charge of international teams, my work implies examination and supervision of the work done by my teammates, work with different people across different continents, cultures, religions and ways of thinking. The job is not easy to do because there are people who will take it personally when you control some aspects of their work and their quality results. There are people, who answer à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã…“yes, I g ot ità ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ , even if they donà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢t understand. Being involved in a few project reviews that include wide and complex projects is a very hard situation to manage, as my role sometimes involves decisions that may not be in favor of team mates. Moreover, it is sometimes hard understand their enrollment and support to the project tasks or their participation in different project aspects. I cannot avoid being deeply concerned with the situation and with its possible consequences in other people lifeà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s, because they have a personal direct report line and they know me. I still donà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢t manage to accept the fact that some people could do things against the company without following assigned tasks. There are of course also decisions that need a proper judgement like when choosing between personal life and your work. A practical example is when you are faced with the problem of refusing an assignment because there is a family matters to attend. It might be the case that you choose to be absent from work in order to take some time for yourself. One of the hardest decisions that I had to take in these two years was about issuing an end contract review to one of my teammates. Thus part of my responsibility is to interview new candidates that will join my team and to monitor their results. One of them has been diagnosed with a mental disease and this was a piece of information they used against her. During her apparent ship she didnà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢t show any sign of her illness. In fact I had found her an efficient and effective collaborator, thanks to of her patience, intelligence, and as well as willingness on learning and improving her knowledge in the field. After three weeks, and in reason of my recommendation, to give her access to widen her learning experience within the company operativity, the Compliance Officer decided to introduce her in the operation team as junior assistant for a period of two months. D uring her training, I was informed by her line supervisor that she experienced sudden attack of hallucination. The news took me by surprise and deeply affected me because I didnà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢t suspect such a terrible truth. Human Resources wasnà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢t acquainted at all regarding her health problem and for this reason they were unable to communicate me the results of her background inquiries. I was asked by her line manager to conduct a thorough evaluation of her case and consequently to report my findings on her status to company top management. In reason of this insufficient investigation carried out by Human Resources, I found myself in the unpleasant situation of not knowing how to proceed on her present status with our HR Dept. Of course there is a labor law that has to be taken in consideration concerning company protection. Her school reports were good like her previous professional experience, but her disease generated doubts in me about her ability to perform her daily tasks and the impact of her illness on other co-workers. The decision has to be done before the apprentice ship period ends. Through assessment, I finally decided to recommend closing her contract with the company, because of the effect of her mental disease to the general team results, or like the impact that high workload and pressure will result on her disease. I had to set aside my empathy, in order to privilege the whole company. She couldnà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢t afford too much pressure on herself, she would have suffered much more and this might not be helpful for her case. The working environment within the company is extremely competitive, thus I continually check my results and evaluate to invest in further education. I trusted the management and I set aside too much of my private life for the company but unfortunately in the end I was deceived. This disappointment made me doubt about management effectiveness to support me in any further career development. As long as I love my job and colleagues I work with, I have to consider carefully all options and evaluate other future possible alternatives. My frustrations started when I requested the management to let me lead different team operations, in order to be able to concentrate on my academic studies and simultaneously experience new challenges, since operations are a very demanding area of the financial companies undertakings. Being a business oriented person, I feel the necessity to look for more challenges and as Ià ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢m already in IT management since more than 10 years it no longer provides me the challenges and motivations I need. I thus asked the management to relocate me to other areas aiming to improve my skills in other ways. Unfortunately the request was refused and I was kept in the same position. Furthermore, my supervisor, our Chief Financial Officer resigned and a good percentage of his workload was transferred to me, without even opting for a promotion. I performed his functions as additional to mine, so at the end my job was involving multi-tasking activities. In a practical thinking environment, I was expecting a career advance or promotion, but unfortunately my request was put aside for more than three months. As a consequence Ià ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢m unsatisfied with my current job position and, at the present moment while experiencing a serious doubt concerning the decision whether to stay or leave the group. Management choice not to support me in impeding me to pursue my education has been a great disappointment to me. I was unhappy with the way in which the Human Resources dept. managed the situation and left me no option but to resigned and abandon the company. The decision to continue to work for the same company is very difficult for me because I loved the job and the people. The company has been my second home, but in a professional perspective. I have the impression that I am no longer in the right place because I now experience discon tentment, which would greatly affect the quality of my work if I stayed. I have taken into considerations a lot of options and alternatives for my future. I have different sensations about my resignation, because in many ways I am afraid facing the many changes that this decision may lead to after resigning. These uncertain include dealing with new companies, new working context and groups or new bosses. Moreover the fact that I might not find a suitable job immediately has given me a frustrating feeling of inadequacy and incompetence. I have been working for years and now I realize that I could be forced to stay at home with nothing to do. This prospective frightens me a lot, because I cannot stand idleness, even for a short period of time. All of these uncurtains must be solved, otherwise I wonà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢t realize that I can still get a lot of satisfaction from my business life. I am still young and there are so many open opportunities just waiting for me. Therefore, my dec ision has been taken: I am perfectly determined to accept à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã…“job-hunting challengeà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚  again. I believe in my skills and possibilities to pursue and find the à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã…“dream jobà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚  I am looking for. Consciously or unconsciously, decisions are taken daily, at work or at home. These decisions can involve and affects individuals, groups, or families. The more crucial a decision is, the more it requires thorough evaluation and critical thinking, counterbalancing the positive and negative issues it could lead too. Having a global picture is always good as it will help to become a good manager and improve the ability to make good decisions. A decision-making model is a good process to obtain optimum decisions. References: Critical Thinking (Bassham Irwin, Nardone Wallace) https://highered.mheducation.com/sites/0072879599/student_view0/chapter1/glossary.html

Monday, May 18, 2020

William Faulkners A Rose for Emily A Southern Heritage Reflection - Free Essay Example

Sample details Pages: 4 Words: 1085 Downloads: 10 Date added: 2019/04/15 Category Literature Essay Level High school Topics: A Rose For Emily Essay Did you like this example? In William Faulkners short story, A Rose for Emily, the reader acknowledges the rude reality of Emily Griersons inability to be receptive of a new, dynamic and ever-changing world. Emily is not only lonely but also a mysterious lady, who lives in a large, post-civil war era home with her father. William Faulkner narrates this old and lonely ladys story, precisely explicating how she remains stuck in her own timeframe. Don’t waste time! Our writers will create an original "William Faulkners A Rose for Emily: A Southern Heritage Reflection" essay for you Create order Although her autocratic father died over thirty years earlier, Emily remains rigid and still holds onto her the way she lived her life before her fathers demise. According to Perry, Emilys house, formerly luxurious white with scrolled balconies, has is now an excellent example of the most ghastly looking abode on the once most revered square in the town. Encroached with decay and dust, the house has left people in her city gossiping about her while at the same time pitying her lost soul. Perhaps due to loneliness and desperation, she soon gets in a romantic affair with Homer Barron, a young bachelor who works in a construction corporation paving footways on Emilys city streets, Jefferson. The more the townspeople see them taking rides together, the more they talk and sympathize with her. In a dramatic twist of events, Emilys public appearances with Homer lessen. One day Miss Emily is seen acquiring poison from a drug market. A Rose for Emily is fundamentally a tale of old versus new and tradition versus non-tradition. Faulkner brings these aspects into the limelight through the storys main characters, Miss Emily and Homer. Right from the exposition of the text, it is clear that the story revolves around old versus new. Emily Grierson signifies the Old South. This essay will consequently discuss the cultural and historical significance of her character while drawing its examples from the traditional southern heritage. Faulkner successfully creates a gloomy tone of A Rose for Emily particularly at the beginning of this epic tale chronicling the requiem of Miss Emily. With the storys progression, the author takes the readers through distinctive moments in Miss Emilys life, explicitly detailing how she was lost her own world as everything around her kept moving forward. Faulkner additionally employs foreshadowing, narrator point of view, and the southern gothic writing technique, to aid the reader form a visualization of Miss Emily, as well as the town. According to Rodgers, these elements also give the reader an insight into her environment a clear glimpse of her sanity. Faulkners application of the southern gothic writing method is significant in the understanding of A Rose for Emily, as it helps the reader develop a mental depiction of the main character, Miss Emily. For instance, the town administration commissioned their envoys to discuss the levies that were owed, the author describes her as bloated, like a body long submerged in motionless water (2182). A depiction such as this presents the reader with the impression that Miss Emily is not well. His witty elucidation that she seemed bloated accomplishes his desired effect on the anthologys reader to attest how disgusting she emerged. This photographic representation, merged with the Faulkners dismal portrayal of the parlor (2182), creates in the reader the image of death. Moreover, the reader gets the feeling of being in an interment parlor. This is crucial as it helps to reinforce Faulkners narrative and depiction of Miss Emily.. A significant theme in A Rose for Emily, is the deterioration of the Old South, which connects to the southern cultural values and economic structure before the eruption of the Civil War (Beyer 34). In the prewar South, society consisted of slaves, tenant farmers, merchants, and the landed nobility. Throughout this time, aristocrats abided by the southern codes of honor. While men took up their positions as providers and protectors, women had to keep the highest levels of morality. The Griersons in A Rose for Emily, belong to the landed gentry class. They exhibit the superiority complex and arrogance that befits their status (Perry, 161). Emilys father, for example, clearly displays this stance by deeming no local suitor deserves his daughter as a wife. Emily too displays the same attitude, shunning society from her life even long after her fathers death. Miss Emilys reaction toward her tax obligations, association with the townspeople, and her understanding of death are explicit examples that she is stuck in the past although the south has embraced modernism. With the passing and retiring from civil service of older generation members, the younger generation expects Emily to pay taxes to the local government as there was no written rule exempted her from doing so. She responds that Colonel Sartoris clarified to her that she did not owe any tax to Jefferson. Although Sartoris died ten years ago, she still clings to what she believes Colonel had given his word, and according to the traditional view, his word knew no death. It is the past pitted against the present-the past with its social decorum, the present with everything set down in the books ( Rodgers, 121). With this, she passes as an excellent representation of a superb keeper of the southern customs and traditions. Despite the modern industrialization characterized by large-sca le crop production, motorized vehicles, and the construction of the railroad, Emily remains stuck in the old south, rigidly holding onto the old social values and oblivious of the fact that modernity had grossly decreased the power and influence of the landed gentry. In conclusion, William Faulkner just like other Southern Gothic novelists concentrated on portraying southern experience and history in the United States particularly in the periods following the Civil War. They employed grotesque imagery, themes, and symbolism. Faulkner uses all these in A Rose for Emily to highlight the texts primary concern, traditions versus change. His portrayal of Emily brings into sharp focus the struggles the old south conservatives went through in their efforts to preserve their cultural values amidst widespread modernization and industrialization. William Faulkner ultimately shows that failure to acknowledge change leads to peril as Emily, the epitome of tradition remains lonely throughout her life, incapable of even accepting the death of her father. She presents those who would not abandon the customs whose time had passed and this subjects them to dire consequences. Her rigidity finally leads to her death as she kills the handsome Northerner Homer, and l ater, submits a tremendous deal of condemnation and succumbs. By her murdering homer she endorses the fact that the conservatives could do anything to ensure they do not acknowledge industrialization, represented by Homer.

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Comparing A Worn Path by Eudora Welty and A Rose For...

Comparing A Worn Path by Eudora Welty and A Rose For Emily by William Faulkner In the pages of the short stories, A Worn Path and A Rose For Emily we are able to see a similar side and connection between the two. As we look at the theme, tone, and morals we are able to better grasp the conflict in these two stories, while detecting whether the two protagonists, Miss Emily and Phoenix Jackson are mentally crazy. The main moral in A Worn Path is the love, and life of Phoenix Jackson. The path she travels across interrupts her life. Her love is the love and affection she has for her grandson. If we read the story closer then it may lead us to the conclusion that Phoenix really does not have a Grandson. Phoenix complains†¦show more content†¦Miss Emily?s father used to chase away all of her boyfriends or men she had feelings for. She became adapted to this life of only having her father and when he dies then she feels alone and doesn?t want to ever be alone again and she has not the knowledge to maintain her own boyfriend or husband. So she decides to kill her current crush and she keeps him in a locked room until the day she dies. When you compare the two books they have a very similar tone. Though the locations different they still connect through the same tone. Phoenix Jackson is on a trail walking to town to buy some medicine for her Grandson, while Miss Emily is locked up in her house with a dead man. If you were to not focus as much on the location and put your attention to their state of mind then you can see that they are in the same atmosphere. The tone in A Worn Path is for Phoenix to accomplish the task of getting medicine for her grandchild, while the reader can look at the path as the challenges of her life. Miss Emily on the other hand is just looking to not be so alone. They both know that if they set their mind to their goal then they can accomplish anything they wish to. The theme is slightly different however. Miss Emily and Phoenix both have goals, but in A Worn Path Phoenix?s life is portrayed so much by the path itself. The path in the story tells the life of Phoenix. While Miss Emily is just a woman who sits at home and does not go out in public too often, she just wants to

Essay about alcoholism - 1234 Words

nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;Alcoholism has devastating effects not only to society, but also to the family structure. Alcohol dependence develops differently in each individual. But certain symptoms characterize the illness, according to the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA). An alcoholic separates them self from almost all social situations and consumes his/her self in having another drink or thinking about their next drink. Seventy six million Americans, about 43% of the U.S. adult population, have been exposed to alcoholism in the family (NIAAA) . I have first-hand experience dealing with an alcoholic because my father was one until his death on July 2,nd 2004. nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;My father’s†¦show more content†¦They suffer from impaired control, an inability to stop drinking once they have begun. Alcoholics also become physically dependent on alcohol (National Institutes of Health). That same year I could not come home for Christmas due to a job and my father told me that if I couldn’t come home, then he guessed there would be no Christmas that year. My mother and my grandparents immediately told me that they would come. When my mom returned home, she moved out of the house and never returned. She couldn’t take his attitude, drinking and verbal abuse anymore. The drinking had become more severe than I knew and no matter what anyone told my father, he just wouldn’t listen or care. nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;During my final semester in school, I took an internship at an elderly and disabled housing facility for low income people. During my internship, I assisted many different types of drug addicts and alcoholics which I helped so they could receive proper attention and medicines. Almost one in five adult Americans (18%) lived with an alcoholic while growing up. nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;When I returned home after my graduation, which my father had not come to, I saw him for the first time in almost a year. My emotions that day were unexplainable, for I knew just from looking at him and the appearance of his body that his struggle with alcoholism wasShow MoreRelatedAlcoholism : Alcoholism And Alcoholism2482 Words   |  10 Pageslead to extreme alcohol abuse and even alcoholism. The society we live in is strongly prejudiced by alcohol, and affects people of all ages, gender, and background. It has been uncovered to millionaires to the homeless. Alcohol abuse has been a problem throughout the history of humanity; it is a disease which has caused many people to be overcome with trouble, problems, and debts also pattern of drinking that interferes with day-to-day activities. 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Clinical Handover Samples for Students †MyAssignmenthelp.com

Question: Discuss about the Clinical Handover for Clinicians and Managers. Answer: Introduction During the time of a disease or health care, a patient can be treated by two or more healthcare practitioners or professionals in different settings such as surgical care, primary care, intensive care and specialized outpatient care. Besides, patients may often move between places of diagnosis, treatments, and care on a regular basis. During this time, they might encounter multiple shifts per day, thus putting their safety at risk in every interval. The handover process between healthcares providers might lack some of the essential information about the patient hence lead to misunderstanding (Jorm et al. 2009). Such gaps in communication can result in serious breakdowns in a continuity of care as well as improper treatment or harm to the patient. This paper addresses the process of clinical handover in nursing practice. It looks at a case study of Mr. Smith, an 87-year-old patient with a colostomy in the sigmoid area of his bowel and ailing from diarrhea and vomiting. Since poor hand hygiene can be one of the leading cause of diarrhea, a medical professional can use the vital signs of his patient to monitor the ailment (see Appendix 2), use progress note to provide information about the patient condition or achievement as well as provide a food and fluid chart to help on a favorite diet program. Clinical handover Clinical handover is a method of sharing or transfer of patient information from one health officer to the other. During nursing handover, communications can be shared, via telephone, electronic means, written texts or one on one conversation (Jorm et al. 2009). In a health care setting, the technique of handing over depends on certain things such as the shift (morning, afternoon or night), patient as well as the mode of delivering the service (Johnson and Cowin, 2012).The Australian Medical Association has defined the clinical handover as the transfer of professional accountability plus responsibility for all the aspects of a patients care from one health officer to the other either on a permanent basis or temporary basis.Therefore, the primary purpose of the handover process is to transfer the relevant clinical information and continuity of patient care. Effective clinical handover reduces communication errors and improves patients safety. Inadequate or poor handover or failure to transfer information, accountability, and responsibility in nursing practice is a significant risk to clients safety plus a common reason for severe consequences for patients. Effects of poor clinical communication include issues such as incorrect treatment, adverse effects, and delay in medical diagnosis, patient complaints, increase in length of stay and an increase in expenditure (Australian Council for Safety Quality in Health Care 2005). The part of information about the Patient That Should Be Included in the Handover The information and level of details about the patients that is included in a nursing handover depend on several factors including the severity of the patients sickness and whether there are pending results of examinations that need quick follow-up. Clinical handover should include essential information such as patient background, date and time of admission, the reason for admission, any necessary medical history such as new referral, investigation, and treatments to mention just a few (Chaboyer et al. 2009). The introduction, situation, background, assessment plus recommendation (ISBAR) is a framework that can be used to present relevant information about patients in any clinical handover scenario. The introduction is the first element of ISBAR that include an introduction to the nurses plus the patient. The situation element explains the immediate condition of the patient including patient stability and complaints. According to Chaboyer et al. (2009), the background provides inform ation such as the date of admission, diagnosis, and treatment as well as test results up to the time a patient is in the hospital ward. The assessment provides the nursing examination of the patients conditions. The recommendation provides an outline of the recommendations and risk. Student Nurse Responsibility in Maintaining Confidentiality Confidentiality in health setting means preventing the release of health information given by or about an individual in the course of professional practice. Keeping patients information confidential is a requirement of the law as well as professional practice for every nurse (Griffith, 2015). This means every health professionals like nurses have a duty of confidentiality regarding patient information. The duty of confidentiality requires that nurses keep information about their patients secret. However, the nurse should release health information in a medical facility to improve patient safety or treatment. In this case, Nurse should pass patient health information on in sureness with the expectation that privacy/secrecy will be respected by the guarantee of confidentiality (Griffith and Tengnah, 2013). Colostomy When an individual has a problem with their lower bowel such as diseases and a case of bowelcancer, a colostomy is performed (Engida, 2016). A colostomy is a surgical operation that involves shortening the colon to allow for the damaged part to be removed and letting the cut end be diverted to the opening in the abdominal wall. However, the colostomy can be permanent or temporary. Some colostomies appear small, some large, some are on the right side of the abdomen, and some are on the left and others in the middle. A colostomy is one of the common life-saving emergency procedures done worldwide with the intention of either diversion of stool or decompression of obstructed colon to protect contamination of the distal large bowel segment by stool and to relieve obstructed large bowel (Engida, 2016).Therefore, a colostomy is performed to treat different condition and disease. These include perforated bowel, inflammatory bowel disease, colon or rectal cancer, diverticulitis, bowel obstru ction, ulcerative colitis, accidental injury or congenital disabilities. Healthy stoma appearance Stoma is a Greek word meaning opening or mouth. It refers to the part of intestine pulled through and attached to the skin (Dorman, 2009). When the abdominal wall is open, it creates a stoma, which is created by opening the skin and attaching a pouch to collect feces. The primary purpose of the stoma formation is to divert urine or feces away from disease or damaged track. According to Dorman (2009), some of the signs of a healthy stoma include red moist and shiny in color, when the stoma is above the skin level, and when it appears as if its inside the mouth, Cyrils colostomy stool characteristics The sigmoid colostomy is a very common type of colostomy. It originates in the sigmoid colon plus situated on the lower side of the abdomen. The stool of a sigmoid or descending colostomy is firmer than the other colostomy and does not have the caustic enzyme content (Abebe, 2016). In Cyril case, he has a colostomy located in the sigmoid section of the bowel. This means Cyrils colostomy would produce feces that are solid, regular and firmer. Contact Precautions in Managing Cyrils Colostomy Besides standard precautions, the nurse should use contact precautions when attending the patient to avoid direct contact with the patient. For the case of Mr. Smith, the nurse should wear gloves when coming into contact with Cyril as well as his belongings or immediate environment. The gloves should be removed after use plus prior to touching noncontaminated items or when attending other patients (Merboth and Barnason, 2000). Lastly, the hands should be cleaned right after removing the gloves. Another contact precaution that can be taken is to wear a gown that is fluid resistant. For safety to other patients, do not wear the same gown although. Other additional procedures that can be taken include placement of the patients in a private room to prevent the spread of the infection to other patients in the same ward. Also, you can instruct the patient to use separate washroom if available and disinfect it prior to using it again. Nurse action based on the vital sign score Merboth and Barnason (2000) states that nurses see their patients more often than any other medical officer. Therefore, they are in proper position to monitor the progress of their patients, know any issues early as well as judge what action should be taken for the patient. According to the vital score of the patient, it implied that the body temperature, pulse rate, blood pressure and respiratory rate were normal. After registering a vital sign score 3, the nurse should plan the care that includes; procedure ordered when communicating with the doctor using the ISBAR framework. The nurse should provide nursing measures to ensure comfort as well as boost recovery. This includes four-hourly observations, review oxygen requirement, manage fever, pain or distress, and reporting to the team leader. Most importantly, the nurse should provide three types of information. They are the care given to the patient, the patients response to the care, as well as any necessary background information about the patient. Lastly, if the measures havent been effective, the nurse may plan as well as take other measures to assist the patient (Engida, 2016). Communication using ISBAR Framework This is XXX, a first year nursing student in the medical section. The reason I am calling is that Mr. Cyril Smith has suddenly appeared pale and lethargic with trembling in his hands and has facial grimacing. He is also saying that he is not feeling very well; instead, he is feeling dizzy and nauseated and got abdominal pain. I find out that his respiration rate is 14 per minute, the pulse is 110, the temperature is 37.9, oxygen saturation is 95%, and blood pressure is 120/80. Mr. Smith is an 87-year-old man who was admitted last evening with diarrhea and vomiting. He has been unwell for past four days. He has a history of COPD, prostatic hypertrophy, and bowel cancer. He currently has a colostomy located in the sigmoid section of the bowel. On examination, he is alert, has no vomiting and his vital signs are a QADDS score of 3 but still has pain rate of 6/10, has abdominal pain, has nausea and dizziness. I am not sure what the problem is, but I am worried as Mr. Smith is deteriorating I think you probably need to come and see him. When are you going to be able to get here? Would you like me to ask for a consultant to see the patient now? Is there anything I need to do in the meantime? Conclusion This paper has pointed out that nurses are the most important people in the life of a patient. During the period of a disease, a patient can be treated by different medical professionals or practitioners in a single day. Besides, patients can be moved from one facility to the other during diagnosis, treatment, as well as care thus encountering different shifts of healthcare professional a day. Such change of shifts can introduce safety risks to the life of a patient. This is because of poor handover communication between the staff as well in different facilities that can result in poor treatment or harm to the patient. Besides, handover process should be done in a way that will ensure essential information, as well as background information of the patient is passed from one health officer to the other. To ensure the safety of the patient a health officer should make sure that the current condition of the patient, recent changes as well as ongoing treatments and any other possible cha nge of the patient are well documented and communicated from one medical officer to the other. For the health practitioners who are not sure about the precautions to put in managing their patient's safety, they should always communicate with a doctor to seek the way forward. References Aiello, A. E., Coulborn, R. M., Perez, V., Larson, E. L. (2008). Effect of hand hygiene on infectious disease risk in the community setting: a meta-analysis. American journal of public health, 98(8), 1372-1381. Australian Council for Safety and Quality in Health Care (2005).Clinical Handover and Patient Safety Literature Review Report. Australian Council for Safety and Quality in Health Care, Canberra.Australia. Australian Medical Association (2006).Safe Handover: Safe Patients, Guidance for Clinical Handover for Clinicians and Managers. Australian Medical Association, Kingston, Australian Capital Territory. Chaboyer, W., McMurray, A., Johnson, J., Hardy, L., Wallis, M., Chu, F. Y. S. (2009). Bedside handover: quality improvement strategy to transform care at the bedside. Journal of nursing care quality, 24(2), 136-142. Dorman, C. (2009). Ostomy basics: a nurses introduction to care, counselling, and equipment. Modern Medicine Network Engida, A., Ayelign, T., Mahteme, B., Aida, Tilahun.,Abreham, B. (2016). Types and indication of colostomy and determinants of outcomes of patients after surgery.Ethopian Journal of Health Sciences, 26(2): 117-120 Griffith, R. (2015). Patient information: confidentiality and the electronic record. British Journal of Nursing, 24(17): 894-895. doi: 10.12968/bjon.2015.24.17.894 Griffith, R., Tengnah, C. (2013). Shared decision-making: nurses must respect autonomy over paternalism. British Journal of Community Nursing, Vol 18: 303-306.doi: 10.12968/bjcn.2013.18.6.303 Johnson, M., Cowin, L. 2012). Nurses discuss bedside handover and using written handover sheets. Journal of Nursing Management. 21 (1): 121-129. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2834.2012.01438.x Jorm, C. M., White, S., Kaneen, T. (2009). Clinical handover: critical communications. Medical Journal of Australia, 190(11), S108-S109. McEwan, A. B., CLARK, P. (1973). The stoma of the ileal conduit. BJU International, 45(6), 600-605. Merboth, M. K., Barnason, S. (2000). Managing pain: the fifth vital sign. The Nursing Clinics of North America, 35(2), 375-383.